Struct euclid::vector::Vector3D

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#[repr(C)]
pub struct Vector3D<T, U> { pub x: T, pub y: T, pub z: T, /* private fields */ }
Expand description

A 3d Vector tagged with a unit.

Fields§

§x: T

The x (traditionally, horizontal) coordinate.

§y: T

The y (traditionally, vertical) coordinate.

§z: T

The z (traditionally, depth) coordinate.

Implementations§

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impl<T, U> Vector3D<T, U>

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pub fn zero() -> Selfwhere
    T: Zero,

Constructor, setting all components to zero.

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pub const fn new(x: T, y: T, z: T) -> Self

Constructor taking scalar values directly.

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pub fn from_lengths(
    x: Length<T, U>,
    y: Length<T, U>,
    z: Length<T, U>
) -> Vector3D<T, U>

Constructor taking properly Lengths instead of scalar values.

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pub fn from_untyped(p: Vector3D<T, UnknownUnit>) -> Self

Tag a unitless value with units.

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pub fn abs(&self) -> Selfwhere
    T: Signed,

Computes the vector with absolute values of each component.

Example
enum U {}

assert_eq!(vec3::<_, U>(-1, 0, 2).abs(), vec3(1, 0, 2));

let vec = vec3::<_, U>(f32::NAN, 0.0, -f32::MAX).abs();
assert!(vec.x.is_nan());
assert_eq!(vec.y, 0.0);
assert_eq!(vec.z, f32::MAX);
Panics

The behavior for each component follows the scalar type’s implementation of num_traits::Signed::abs.

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pub fn dot(self, other: Self) -> Twhere
    T: Add<Output = T> + Mul<Output = T>,

Dot product.

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impl<T: Copy, U> Vector3D<T, U>

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pub fn cross(self, other: Self) -> Selfwhere
    T: Sub<Output = T> + Mul<Output = T>,

Cross product.

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pub fn to_point(&self) -> Point3D<T, U>

Cast this vector into a point.

Equivalent to adding this vector to the origin.

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pub fn xy(&self) -> Vector2D<T, U>

Returns a 2d vector using this vector’s x and y coordinates

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pub fn xz(&self) -> Vector2D<T, U>

Returns a 2d vector using this vector’s x and z coordinates

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pub fn yz(&self) -> Vector2D<T, U>

Returns a 2d vector using this vector’s x and z coordinates

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pub fn to_array(&self) -> [T; 3]

Cast into an array with x, y and z.

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pub fn to_array_4d(&self) -> [T; 4]where
    T: Zero,

Cast into an array with x, y, z and 0.

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pub fn to_tuple(&self) -> (T, T, T)

Cast into a tuple with x, y and z.

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pub fn to_tuple_4d(&self) -> (T, T, T, T)where
    T: Zero,

Cast into a tuple with x, y, z and 0.

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pub fn to_untyped(&self) -> Vector3D<T, UnknownUnit>

Drop the units, preserving only the numeric value.

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pub fn cast_unit<V>(&self) -> Vector3D<T, V>

Cast the unit.

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pub fn to_2d(&self) -> Vector2D<T, U>

Convert into a 2d vector.

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pub fn round(&self) -> Selfwhere
    T: Round,

Rounds each component to the nearest integer value.

This behavior is preserved for negative values (unlike the basic cast).

enum Mm {}

assert_eq!(vec3::<_, Mm>(-0.1, -0.8, 0.4).round(), vec3::<_, Mm>(0.0, -1.0, 0.0))
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pub fn ceil(&self) -> Selfwhere
    T: Ceil,

Rounds each component to the smallest integer equal or greater than the original value.

This behavior is preserved for negative values (unlike the basic cast).

enum Mm {}

assert_eq!(vec3::<_, Mm>(-0.1, -0.8, 0.4).ceil(), vec3::<_, Mm>(0.0, 0.0, 1.0))
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pub fn floor(&self) -> Selfwhere
    T: Floor,

Rounds each component to the biggest integer equal or lower than the original value.

This behavior is preserved for negative values (unlike the basic cast).

enum Mm {}

assert_eq!(vec3::<_, Mm>(-0.1, -0.8, 0.4).floor(), vec3::<_, Mm>(-1.0, -1.0, 0.0))
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pub fn to_transform(&self) -> Transform3D<T, U, U>where
    T: Zero + One,

Creates translation by this vector in vector units

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impl<T, U> Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: Copy + Mul<T, Output = T> + Add<T, Output = T>,

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pub fn square_length(&self) -> T

Returns the vector’s length squared.

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pub fn project_onto_vector(&self, onto: Self) -> Selfwhere
    T: Sub<T, Output = T> + Div<T, Output = T>,

Returns this vector projected onto another one.

Projecting onto a nil vector will cause a division by zero.

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impl<T: Float, U> Vector3D<T, U>

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pub fn angle_to(&self, other: Self) -> Angle<T>where
    T: Trig,

Returns the positive angle between this vector and another vector.

The returned angle is between 0 and PI.

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pub fn length(&self) -> T

Returns the vector length.

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pub fn normalize(self) -> Self

Returns the vector with length of one unit

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pub fn try_normalize(self) -> Option<Self>

Returns the vector with length of one unit.

Unlike Vector2D::normalize, this returns None in the case that the length of the vector is zero.

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pub fn robust_normalize(self) -> Self

Return the normalized vector even if the length is larger than the max value of Float.

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pub fn with_max_length(&self, max_length: T) -> Self

Return this vector capped to a maximum length.

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pub fn with_min_length(&self, min_length: T) -> Self

Return this vector with a minimum length applied.

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pub fn clamp_length(&self, min: T, max: T) -> Self

Return this vector with minimum and maximum lengths applied.

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impl<T, U> Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: Copy + One + Add<Output = T> + Sub<Output = T> + Mul<Output = T>,

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pub fn lerp(&self, other: Self, t: T) -> Self

Linearly interpolate each component between this vector and another vector.

Example
use euclid::vec3;
use euclid::default::Vector3D;

let from: Vector3D<_> = vec3(0.0, 10.0, -1.0);
let to:  Vector3D<_> = vec3(8.0, -4.0,  0.0);

assert_eq!(from.lerp(to, -1.0), vec3(-8.0,  24.0, -2.0));
assert_eq!(from.lerp(to,  0.0), vec3( 0.0,  10.0, -1.0));
assert_eq!(from.lerp(to,  0.5), vec3( 4.0,   3.0, -0.5));
assert_eq!(from.lerp(to,  1.0), vec3( 8.0,  -4.0,  0.0));
assert_eq!(from.lerp(to,  2.0), vec3(16.0, -18.0,  1.0));
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pub fn reflect(&self, normal: Self) -> Self

Returns a reflection vector using an incident ray and a surface normal.

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impl<T: PartialOrd, U> Vector3D<T, U>

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pub fn min(self, other: Self) -> Self

Returns the vector each component of which are minimum of this vector and another.

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pub fn max(self, other: Self) -> Self

Returns the vector each component of which are maximum of this vector and another.

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pub fn clamp(&self, start: Self, end: Self) -> Selfwhere
    T: Copy,

Returns the vector each component of which is clamped by corresponding components of start and end.

Shortcut for self.max(start).min(end).

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pub fn greater_than(&self, other: Self) -> BoolVector3D

Returns vector with results of “greater than” operation on each component.

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pub fn lower_than(&self, other: Self) -> BoolVector3D

Returns vector with results of “lower than” operation on each component.

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impl<T: PartialEq, U> Vector3D<T, U>

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pub fn equal(&self, other: Self) -> BoolVector3D

Returns vector with results of “equal” operation on each component.

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pub fn not_equal(&self, other: Self) -> BoolVector3D

Returns vector with results of “not equal” operation on each component.

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impl<T: NumCast + Copy, U> Vector3D<T, U>

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pub fn cast<NewT: NumCast>(&self) -> Vector3D<NewT, U>

Cast from one numeric representation to another, preserving the units.

When casting from floating vector to integer coordinates, the decimals are truncated as one would expect from a simple cast, but this behavior does not always make sense geometrically. Consider using round(), ceil() or floor() before casting.

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pub fn try_cast<NewT: NumCast>(&self) -> Option<Vector3D<NewT, U>>

Fallible cast from one numeric representation to another, preserving the units.

When casting from floating vector to integer coordinates, the decimals are truncated as one would expect from a simple cast, but this behavior does not always make sense geometrically. Consider using round(), ceil() or floor() before casting.

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pub fn to_f32(&self) -> Vector3D<f32, U>

Cast into an f32 vector.

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pub fn to_f64(&self) -> Vector3D<f64, U>

Cast into an f64 vector.

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pub fn to_usize(&self) -> Vector3D<usize, U>

Cast into an usize vector, truncating decimals if any.

When casting from floating vector vectors, it is worth considering whether to round(), ceil() or floor() before the cast in order to obtain the desired conversion behavior.

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pub fn to_u32(&self) -> Vector3D<u32, U>

Cast into an u32 vector, truncating decimals if any.

When casting from floating vector vectors, it is worth considering whether to round(), ceil() or floor() before the cast in order to obtain the desired conversion behavior.

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pub fn to_i32(&self) -> Vector3D<i32, U>

Cast into an i32 vector, truncating decimals if any.

When casting from floating vector vectors, it is worth considering whether to round(), ceil() or floor() before the cast in order to obtain the desired conversion behavior.

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pub fn to_i64(&self) -> Vector3D<i64, U>

Cast into an i64 vector, truncating decimals if any.

When casting from floating vector vectors, it is worth considering whether to round(), ceil() or floor() before the cast in order to obtain the desired conversion behavior.

Trait Implementations§

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impl<T: Add, U> Add<Vector3D<T, U>> for Point3D<T, U>

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type Output = Point3D<<T as Add<T>>::Output, U>

The resulting type after applying the + operator.
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fn add(self, other: Vector3D<T, U>) -> Self::Output

Performs the + operation. Read more
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impl<T: Add, U> Add<Vector3D<T, U>> for Vector3D<T, U>

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type Output = Vector3D<<T as Add<T>>::Output, U>

The resulting type after applying the + operator.
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fn add(self, other: Self) -> Self::Output

Performs the + operation. Read more
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impl<T: Copy + Add<T, Output = T>, U> AddAssign<Vector3D<T, U>> for Point3D<T, U>

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fn add_assign(&mut self, other: Vector3D<T, U>)

Performs the += operation. Read more
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impl<T: Copy + Add<T, Output = T>, U> AddAssign<Vector3D<T, U>> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn add_assign(&mut self, other: Self)

Performs the += operation. Read more
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impl<T: ApproxEq<T>, U> ApproxEq<Vector3D<T, U>> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn approx_epsilon() -> Self

Default epsilon value
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fn approx_eq_eps(&self, other: &Self, eps: &Self) -> bool

Returns true is this object is approximately equal to the other one, using a provided epsilon value.
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fn approx_eq(&self, other: &Self) -> bool

Returns true is this object is approximately equal to the other one, using the approx_epsilon() epsilon value.
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impl<T: Ceil, U> Ceil for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn ceil(self) -> Self

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impl<T: Clone, U> Clone for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn clone(&self) -> Self

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl<T: Debug, U> Debug for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<T: Default, U> Default for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn default() -> Self

Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more
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impl<'de, T, U> Deserialize<'de> for Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: Deserialize<'de>,

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fn deserialize<D>(deserializer: D) -> Result<Self, D::Error>where
    D: Deserializer<'de>,

Deserialize this value from the given Serde deserializer. Read more
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impl<T: Display, U> Display for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<T: Clone + Div, U1, U2> Div<Scale<T, U1, U2>> for Vector3D<T, U2>

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type Output = Vector3D<<T as Div<T>>::Output, U1>

The resulting type after applying the / operator.
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fn div(self, scale: Scale<T, U1, U2>) -> Self::Output

Performs the / operation. Read more
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impl<T: Clone + Div, U> Div<T> for Vector3D<T, U>

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type Output = Vector3D<<T as Div<T>>::Output, U>

The resulting type after applying the / operator.
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fn div(self, scale: T) -> Self::Output

Performs the / operation. Read more
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impl<T: Clone + DivAssign, U> DivAssign<Scale<T, U, U>> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn div_assign(&mut self, scale: Scale<T, U, U>)

Performs the /= operation. Read more
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impl<T: Copy + Div<T, Output = T>, U> DivAssign<T> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn div_assign(&mut self, scale: T)

Performs the /= operation. Read more
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impl<T: Floor, U> Floor for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn floor(self) -> Self

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impl<T, U> From<[T; 3]> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn from([x, y, z]: [T; 3]) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T, U> From<(T, T, T)> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn from(tuple: (T, T, T)) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T: Float + ApproxEq<T>, Src, Dst> From<Vector3D<T, Dst>> for RigidTransform3D<T, Src, Dst>

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fn from(t: Vector3D<T, Dst>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T, Src, Dst> From<Vector3D<T, Src>> for Translation3D<T, Src, Dst>

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fn from(v: Vector3D<T, Src>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T: Zero, U> From<Vector3D<T, U>> for HomogeneousVector<T, U>

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fn from(v: Vector3D<T, U>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T, U> From<Vector3D<T, U>> for Size3D<T, U>

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fn from(v: Vector3D<T, U>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T: Hash, U> Hash for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn hash<H: Hasher>(&self, h: &mut H)

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more
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fn hash_slice<H>(data: &[Self], state: &mut H)where
    H: Hasher,
    Self: Sized,

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more
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impl<T, U> Into<[T; 3]> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn into(self) -> [T; 3]

Converts this type into the (usually inferred) input type.
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impl<T, U> Into<(T, T, T)> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn into(self) -> (T, T, T)

Converts this type into the (usually inferred) input type.
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impl<T, Src, Dst> Into<Vector3D<T, Src>> for Translation3D<T, Src, Dst>

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fn into(self) -> Vector3D<T, Src>

Converts this type into the (usually inferred) input type.
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impl<T: Clone + Mul, U1, U2> Mul<Scale<T, U1, U2>> for Vector3D<T, U1>

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type Output = Vector3D<<T as Mul<T>>::Output, U2>

The resulting type after applying the * operator.
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fn mul(self, scale: Scale<T, U1, U2>) -> Self::Output

Performs the * operation. Read more
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impl<T: Clone + Mul, U> Mul<T> for Vector3D<T, U>

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type Output = Vector3D<<T as Mul<T>>::Output, U>

The resulting type after applying the * operator.
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fn mul(self, scale: T) -> Self::Output

Performs the * operation. Read more
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impl<T: Clone + MulAssign, U> MulAssign<Scale<T, U, U>> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn mul_assign(&mut self, scale: Scale<T, U, U>)

Performs the *= operation. Read more
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impl<T: Copy + Mul<T, Output = T>, U> MulAssign<T> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn mul_assign(&mut self, scale: T)

Performs the *= operation. Read more
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impl<T: Neg, U> Neg for Vector3D<T, U>

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type Output = Vector3D<<T as Neg>::Output, U>

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn neg(self) -> Self::Output

Performs the unary - operation. Read more
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impl<T: PartialEq, U> PartialEq<Vector3D<T, U>> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn eq(&self, other: &Self) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl<T: Round, U> Round for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn round(self) -> Self

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impl<T, U> Serialize for Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: Serialize,

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fn serialize<S>(&self, serializer: S) -> Result<S::Ok, S::Error>where
    S: Serializer,

Serialize this value into the given Serde serializer. Read more
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impl<T: Sub, U> Sub<Vector3D<T, U>> for Point3D<T, U>

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type Output = Point3D<<T as Sub<T>>::Output, U>

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn sub(self, other: Vector3D<T, U>) -> Self::Output

Performs the - operation. Read more
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impl<T: Sub, U> Sub<Vector3D<T, U>> for Vector3D<T, U>

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type Output = Vector3D<<T as Sub<T>>::Output, U>

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn sub(self, other: Self) -> Self::Output

Performs the - operation. Read more
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impl<T: Copy + Sub<T, Output = T>, U> SubAssign<Vector3D<T, U>> for Point3D<T, U>

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fn sub_assign(&mut self, other: Vector3D<T, U>)

Performs the -= operation. Read more
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impl<T: Copy + Sub<T, Output = T>, U> SubAssign<Vector3D<T, U>> for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn sub_assign(&mut self, other: Self)

Performs the -= operation. Read more
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impl<T: Zero, U> Zero for Vector3D<T, U>

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fn zero() -> Self

Constructor, setting all components to zero.

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impl<T: Copy, U> Copy for Vector3D<T, U>

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impl<T: Eq, U> Eq for Vector3D<T, U>

Auto Trait Implementations§

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impl<T, U> RefUnwindSafe for Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: RefUnwindSafe,
    U: RefUnwindSafe,

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impl<T, U> Send for Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: Send,
    U: Send,

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impl<T, U> Sync for Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: Sync,
    U: Sync,

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impl<T, U> Unpin for Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: Unpin,
    U: Unpin,

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impl<T, U> UnwindSafe for Vector3D<T, U>where
    T: UnwindSafe,
    U: UnwindSafe,

Blanket Implementations§

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impl<T> Any for Twhere
    T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for Twhere
    T: ?Sized,

const: unstable · source§

fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for Twhere
    T: ?Sized,

const: unstable · source§

fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> From<T> for T

const: unstable · source§

fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<T, U> Into<U> for Twhere
    U: From<T>,

const: unstable · source§

fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<T> ToOwned for Twhere
    T: Clone,

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type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
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fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
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fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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impl<T> ToString for Twhere
    T: Display + ?Sized,

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default fn to_string(&self) -> String

Converts the given value to a String. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for Twhere
    U: Into<T>,

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type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
const: unstable · source§

fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for Twhere
    U: TryFrom<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
const: unstable · source§

fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T> DeserializeOwned for Twhere
    T: for<'de> Deserialize<'de>,