Struct serde::lib::core::net::Ipv6Addr

1.0.0 · source ·
pub struct Ipv6Addr {
    octets: [u8; 16],
}
Expand description

An IPv6 address.

IPv6 addresses are defined as 128-bit integers in IETF RFC 4291. They are usually represented as eight 16-bit segments.

Embedding IPv4 Addresses

See IpAddr for a type encompassing both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

To assist in the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 two types of IPv6 addresses that embed an IPv4 address were defined: IPv4-compatible and IPv4-mapped addresses. Of these IPv4-compatible addresses have been officially deprecated.

Both types of addresses are not assigned any special meaning by this implementation, other than what the relevant standards prescribe. This means that an address like ::ffff:127.0.0.1, while representing an IPv4 loopback address, is not itself an IPv6 loopback address; only ::1 is. To handle these so called “IPv4-in-IPv6” addresses, they have to first be converted to their canonical IPv4 address.

IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses

IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses are defined in IETF RFC 4291 Section 2.5.5.1, and have been officially deprecated. The RFC describes the format of an “IPv4-Compatible IPv6 address” as follows:

|                80 bits               | 16 |      32 bits        |
+--------------------------------------+--------------------------+
|0000..............................0000|0000|    IPv4 address     |
+--------------------------------------+----+---------------------+

So ::a.b.c.d would be an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address representing the IPv4 address a.b.c.d.

To convert from an IPv4 address to an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address, use Ipv4Addr::to_ipv6_compatible. Use Ipv6Addr::to_ipv4 to convert an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address to the canonical IPv4 address.

IPv4-Mapped IPv6 Addresses

IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses are defined in IETF RFC 4291 Section 2.5.5.2. The RFC describes the format of an “IPv4-Mapped IPv6 address” as follows:

|                80 bits               | 16 |      32 bits        |
+--------------------------------------+--------------------------+
|0000..............................0000|FFFF|    IPv4 address     |
+--------------------------------------+----+---------------------+

So ::ffff:a.b.c.d would be an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address representing the IPv4 address a.b.c.d.

To convert from an IPv4 address to an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address, use Ipv4Addr::to_ipv6_mapped. Use Ipv6Addr::to_ipv4 to convert an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address to the canonical IPv4 address. Note that this will also convert the IPv6 loopback address ::1 to 0.0.0.1. Use Ipv6Addr::to_ipv4_mapped to avoid this.

Textual representation

Ipv6Addr provides a FromStr implementation. There are many ways to represent an IPv6 address in text, but in general, each segments is written in hexadecimal notation, and segments are separated by :. For more information, see IETF RFC 5952.

Examples

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let localhost = Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1);
assert_eq!("::1".parse(), Ok(localhost));
assert_eq!(localhost.is_loopback(), true);

Fields

octets: [u8; 16]

Implementations

Creates a new IPv6 address from eight 16-bit segments.

The result will represent the IP address a:b:c:d:e:f:g:h.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let addr = Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff);

An IPv6 address representing localhost: ::1.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let addr = Ipv6Addr::LOCALHOST;
assert_eq!(addr, Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1));

An IPv6 address representing the unspecified address: ::

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let addr = Ipv6Addr::UNSPECIFIED;
assert_eq!(addr, Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0));

Returns the eight 16-bit segments that make up this address.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).segments(),
           [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff]);

Returns true for the special ‘unspecified’ address (::).

This property is defined in IETF RFC 4291.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).is_unspecified(), false);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unspecified(), true);

Returns true if this is the loopback address (::1), as defined in IETF RFC 4291 section 2.5.3.

Contrary to IPv4, in IPv6 there is only one loopback address.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).is_loopback(), false);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0x1).is_loopback(), true);
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Returns true if the address appears to be globally reachable as specified by the IANA IPv6 Special-Purpose Address Registry. Whether or not an address is practically reachable will depend on your network configuration.

Most IPv6 addresses are globally reachable; unless they are specifically defined as not globally reachable.

Non-exhaustive list of notable addresses that are not globally reachable:

For the complete overview of which addresses are globally reachable, see the table at the IANA IPv6 Special-Purpose Address Registry.

Note that an address having global scope is not the same as being globally reachable, and there is no direct relation between the two concepts: There exist addresses with global scope that are not globally reachable (for example unique local addresses), and addresses that are globally reachable without having global scope (multicast addresses with non-global scope).

Examples
#![feature(ip)]

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

// Most IPv6 addresses are globally reachable:
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0x26, 0, 0x1c9, 0, 0, 0xafc8, 0x10, 0x1).is_global(), true);

// However some addresses have been assigned a special meaning
// that makes them not globally reachable. Some examples are:

// The unspecified address (`::`)
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::UNSPECIFIED.is_global(), false);

// The loopback address (`::1`)
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::LOCALHOST.is_global(), false);

// IPv4-mapped addresses (`::ffff:0:0/96`)
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).is_global(), false);

// Addresses reserved for benchmarking (`2001:2::/48`)
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0x2001, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1,).is_global(), false);

// Addresses reserved for documentation (`2001:db8::/32`)
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0x2001, 0xdb8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1).is_global(), false);

// Unique local addresses (`fc00::/7`)
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xfc02, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1).is_global(), false);

// Unicast addresses with link-local scope (`fe80::/10`)
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xfe81, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1).is_global(), false);

// For a complete overview see the IANA IPv6 Special-Purpose Address Registry.
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Returns true if this is a unique local address (fc00::/7).

This property is defined in IETF RFC 4193.

Examples
#![feature(ip)]

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).is_unique_local(), false);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xfc02, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unique_local(), true);
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Returns true if this is a unicast address, as defined by IETF RFC 4291. Any address that is not a multicast address (ff00::/8) is unicast.

Examples
#![feature(ip)]

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

// The unspecified and loopback addresses are unicast.
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::UNSPECIFIED.is_unicast(), true);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::LOCALHOST.is_unicast(), true);

// Any address that is not a multicast address (`ff00::/8`) is unicast.
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0x2001, 0xdb8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unicast(), true);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xff00, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unicast(), false);
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Returns true if the address is a unicast address with link-local scope, as defined in RFC 4291.

A unicast address has link-local scope if it has the prefix fe80::/10, as per RFC 4291 section 2.4. Note that this encompasses more addresses than those defined in RFC 4291 section 2.5.6, which describes “Link-Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses” as having the following stricter format:

| 10 bits  |         54 bits         |          64 bits           |
+----------+-------------------------+----------------------------+
|1111111010|           0             |       interface ID         |
+----------+-------------------------+----------------------------+

So while currently the only addresses with link-local scope an application will encounter are all in fe80::/64, this might change in the future with the publication of new standards. More addresses in fe80::/10 could be allocated, and those addresses will have link-local scope.

Also note that while RFC 4291 section 2.5.3 mentions about the loopback address (::1) that “it is treated as having Link-Local scope”, this does not mean that the loopback address actually has link-local scope and this method will return false on it.

Examples
#![feature(ip)]

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

// The loopback address (`::1`) does not actually have link-local scope.
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::LOCALHOST.is_unicast_link_local(), false);

// Only addresses in `fe80::/10` have link-local scope.
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0x2001, 0xdb8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unicast_link_local(), false);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xfe80, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unicast_link_local(), true);

// Addresses outside the stricter `fe80::/64` also have link-local scope.
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xfe80, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unicast_link_local(), true);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xfe81, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unicast_link_local(), true);
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Returns true if this is an address reserved for documentation (2001:db8::/32).

This property is defined in IETF RFC 3849.

Examples
#![feature(ip)]

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).is_documentation(), false);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0x2001, 0xdb8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_documentation(), true);
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Returns true if this is an address reserved for benchmarking (2001:2::/48).

This property is defined in IETF RFC 5180, where it is mistakenly specified as covering the range 2001:0200::/48. This is corrected in IETF RFC Errata 1752 to 2001:0002::/48.

#![feature(ip)]

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc613, 0x0).is_benchmarking(), false);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0x2001, 0x2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_benchmarking(), true);
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Returns true if the address is a globally routable unicast address.

The following return false:

  • the loopback address
  • the link-local addresses
  • unique local addresses
  • the unspecified address
  • the address range reserved for documentation

This method returns true for site-local addresses as per RFC 4291 section 2.5.7

The special behavior of [the site-local unicast] prefix defined in [RFC3513] must no longer
be supported in new implementations (i.e., new implementations must treat this prefix as
Global Unicast).
Examples
#![feature(ip)]

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0x2001, 0xdb8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_unicast_global(), false);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).is_unicast_global(), true);
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Returns the address’s multicast scope if the address is multicast.

Examples
#![feature(ip)]

use std::net::{Ipv6Addr, Ipv6MulticastScope};

assert_eq!(
    Ipv6Addr::new(0xff0e, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).multicast_scope(),
    Some(Ipv6MulticastScope::Global)
);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).multicast_scope(), None);

Returns true if this is a multicast address (ff00::/8).

This property is defined by IETF RFC 4291.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xff00, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).is_multicast(), true);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).is_multicast(), false);

Converts this address to an IPv4 address if it’s an IPv4-mapped address, as defined in IETF RFC 4291 section 2.5.5.2, otherwise returns None.

::ffff:a.b.c.d becomes a.b.c.d. All addresses not starting with ::ffff will return None.

Examples
use std::net::{Ipv4Addr, Ipv6Addr};

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xff00, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).to_ipv4_mapped(), None);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).to_ipv4_mapped(),
           Some(Ipv4Addr::new(192, 10, 2, 255)));
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1).to_ipv4_mapped(), None);

Converts this address to an IPv4 address if it is either an IPv4-compatible address as defined in IETF RFC 4291 section 2.5.5.1, or an IPv4-mapped address as defined in IETF RFC 4291 section 2.5.5.2, otherwise returns None.

Note that this will return an IPv4 address for the IPv6 loopback address ::1. Use Ipv6Addr::to_ipv4_mapped to avoid this.

::a.b.c.d and ::ffff:a.b.c.d become a.b.c.d. ::1 becomes 0.0.0.1. All addresses not starting with either all zeroes or ::ffff will return None.

Examples
use std::net::{Ipv4Addr, Ipv6Addr};

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xff00, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).to_ipv4(), None);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff).to_ipv4(),
           Some(Ipv4Addr::new(192, 10, 2, 255)));
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1).to_ipv4(),
           Some(Ipv4Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 1)));
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ip)

Converts this address to an IpAddr::V4 if it is an IPv4-mapped addresses, otherwise it returns self wrapped in an IpAddr::V6.

Examples
#![feature(ip)]
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0x7f00, 0x1).is_loopback(), false);
assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0x7f00, 0x1).to_canonical().is_loopback(), true);

Returns the sixteen eight-bit integers the IPv6 address consists of.

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::new(0xff00, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).octets(),
           [255, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]);
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (addr_parse_ascii)

Parse an IPv6 address from a slice of bytes.

#![feature(addr_parse_ascii)]

use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let localhost = Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1);

assert_eq!(Ipv6Addr::parse_ascii(b"::1"), Ok(localhost));

Trait Implementations

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
Deserialize this value from the given Serde deserializer. Read more

Write an Ipv6Addr, conforming to the canonical style described by RFC 5952.

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Creates an Ipv6Addr from an eight element 16-bit array.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let addr = Ipv6Addr::from([
    525u16, 524u16, 523u16, 522u16,
    521u16, 520u16, 519u16, 518u16,
]);
assert_eq!(
    Ipv6Addr::new(
        0x20d, 0x20c,
        0x20b, 0x20a,
        0x209, 0x208,
        0x207, 0x206
    ),
    addr
);

Creates an Ipv6Addr from a sixteen element byte array.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let addr = Ipv6Addr::from([
    25u8, 24u8, 23u8, 22u8, 21u8, 20u8, 19u8, 18u8,
    17u8, 16u8, 15u8, 14u8, 13u8, 12u8, 11u8, 10u8,
]);
assert_eq!(
    Ipv6Addr::new(
        0x1918, 0x1716,
        0x1514, 0x1312,
        0x1110, 0x0f0e,
        0x0d0c, 0x0b0a
    ),
    addr
);

Copies this address to a new IpAddr::V6.

Examples
use std::net::{IpAddr, Ipv6Addr};

let addr = Ipv6Addr::new(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0xffff, 0xc00a, 0x2ff);

assert_eq!(
    IpAddr::V6(addr),
    IpAddr::from(addr)
);

Convert an Ipv6Addr into a host byte order u128.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let addr = Ipv6Addr::new(
    0x1020, 0x3040, 0x5060, 0x7080,
    0x90A0, 0xB0C0, 0xD0E0, 0xF00D,
);
assert_eq!(0x102030405060708090A0B0C0D0E0F00D_u128, u128::from(addr));

Convert a host byte order u128 into an Ipv6Addr.

Examples
use std::net::Ipv6Addr;

let addr = Ipv6Addr::from(0x102030405060708090A0B0C0D0E0F00D_u128);
assert_eq!(
    Ipv6Addr::new(
        0x1020, 0x3040, 0x5060, 0x7080,
        0x90A0, 0xB0C0, 0xD0E0, 0xF00D,
    ),
    addr);
The associated error which can be returned from parsing.
Parses a string s to return a value of this type. Read more
Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more
Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more
This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more
Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more
Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more
Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason. Read more
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason. Read more
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
Serialize this value into the given Serde serializer. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns the argument unchanged.

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.