Primitive Type f64

1.0.0 · []
Expand description

A 64-bit floating point type (specifically, the “binary64” type defined in IEEE 754-2008).

This type is very similar to f32, but has increased precision by using twice as many bits. Please see the documentation for f32 or Wikipedia on double precision values for more information.

See also the std::f64::consts module.

Implementations

The radix or base of the internal representation of f64.

Number of significant digits in base 2.

Approximate number of significant digits in base 10.

Machine epsilon value for f64.

This is the difference between 1.0 and the next larger representable number.

Smallest finite f64 value.

Smallest positive normal f64 value.

Largest finite f64 value.

One greater than the minimum possible normal power of 2 exponent.

Maximum possible power of 2 exponent.

Minimum possible normal power of 10 exponent.

Maximum possible power of 10 exponent.

Not a Number (NaN).

Infinity (∞).

Negative infinity (−∞).

Returns true if this value is NaN.

let nan = f64::NAN;
let f = 7.0_f64;

assert!(nan.is_nan());
assert!(!f.is_nan());
Run

Returns true if this value is positive infinity or negative infinity, and false otherwise.

let f = 7.0f64;
let inf = f64::INFINITY;
let neg_inf = f64::NEG_INFINITY;
let nan = f64::NAN;

assert!(!f.is_infinite());
assert!(!nan.is_infinite());

assert!(inf.is_infinite());
assert!(neg_inf.is_infinite());
Run

Returns true if this number is neither infinite nor NaN.

let f = 7.0f64;
let inf: f64 = f64::INFINITY;
let neg_inf: f64 = f64::NEG_INFINITY;
let nan: f64 = f64::NAN;

assert!(f.is_finite());

assert!(!nan.is_finite());
assert!(!inf.is_finite());
assert!(!neg_inf.is_finite());
Run

Returns true if the number is subnormal.

let min = f64::MIN_POSITIVE; // 2.2250738585072014e-308_f64
let max = f64::MAX;
let lower_than_min = 1.0e-308_f64;
let zero = 0.0_f64;

assert!(!min.is_subnormal());
assert!(!max.is_subnormal());

assert!(!zero.is_subnormal());
assert!(!f64::NAN.is_subnormal());
assert!(!f64::INFINITY.is_subnormal());
// Values between `0` and `min` are Subnormal.
assert!(lower_than_min.is_subnormal());
Run

Returns true if the number is neither zero, infinite, subnormal, or NaN.

let min = f64::MIN_POSITIVE; // 2.2250738585072014e-308f64
let max = f64::MAX;
let lower_than_min = 1.0e-308_f64;
let zero = 0.0f64;

assert!(min.is_normal());
assert!(max.is_normal());

assert!(!zero.is_normal());
assert!(!f64::NAN.is_normal());
assert!(!f64::INFINITY.is_normal());
// Values between `0` and `min` are Subnormal.
assert!(!lower_than_min.is_normal());
Run

Returns the floating point category of the number. If only one property is going to be tested, it is generally faster to use the specific predicate instead.

use std::num::FpCategory;

let num = 12.4_f64;
let inf = f64::INFINITY;

assert_eq!(num.classify(), FpCategory::Normal);
assert_eq!(inf.classify(), FpCategory::Infinite);
Run

Returns true if self has a positive sign, including +0.0, NaNs with positive sign bit and positive infinity.

let f = 7.0_f64;
let g = -7.0_f64;

assert!(f.is_sign_positive());
assert!(!g.is_sign_positive());
Run

Returns true if self has a negative sign, including -0.0, NaNs with negative sign bit and negative infinity.

let f = 7.0_f64;
let g = -7.0_f64;

assert!(!f.is_sign_negative());
assert!(g.is_sign_negative());
Run

Takes the reciprocal (inverse) of a number, 1/x.

let x = 2.0_f64;
let abs_difference = (x.recip() - (1.0 / x)).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
Run

Converts radians to degrees.

let angle = std::f64::consts::PI;

let abs_difference = (angle.to_degrees() - 180.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
Run

Converts degrees to radians.

let angle = 180.0_f64;

let abs_difference = (angle.to_radians() - std::f64::consts::PI).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
Run

Returns the maximum of the two numbers.

Follows the IEEE-754 2008 semantics for maxNum, except for handling of signaling NaNs. This matches the behavior of libm’s fmax.

let x = 1.0_f64;
let y = 2.0_f64;

assert_eq!(x.max(y), y);
Run

If one of the arguments is NaN, then the other argument is returned.

Returns the minimum of the two numbers.

Follows the IEEE-754 2008 semantics for minNum, except for handling of signaling NaNs. This matches the behavior of libm’s fmin.

let x = 1.0_f64;
let y = 2.0_f64;

assert_eq!(x.min(y), x);
Run

If one of the arguments is NaN, then the other argument is returned.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (float_minimum_maximum #91079)

Returns the maximum of the two numbers, propagating NaNs.

This returns NaN when either argument is NaN, as opposed to f64::max which only returns NaN when both arguments are NaN.

#![feature(float_minimum_maximum)]
let x = 1.0_f64;
let y = 2.0_f64;

assert_eq!(x.maximum(y), y);
assert!(x.maximum(f64::NAN).is_nan());
Run

If one of the arguments is NaN, then NaN is returned. Otherwise this returns the greater of the two numbers. For this operation, -0.0 is considered to be less than +0.0. Note that this follows the semantics specified in IEEE 754-2019.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (float_minimum_maximum #91079)

Returns the minimum of the two numbers, propagating NaNs.

This returns NaN when either argument is NaN, as opposed to f64::min which only returns NaN when both arguments are NaN.

#![feature(float_minimum_maximum)]
let x = 1.0_f64;
let y = 2.0_f64;

assert_eq!(x.minimum(y), x);
assert!(x.minimum(f64::NAN).is_nan());
Run

If one of the arguments is NaN, then NaN is returned. Otherwise this returns the lesser of the two numbers. For this operation, -0.0 is considered to be less than +0.0. Note that this follows the semantics specified in IEEE 754-2019.

Rounds toward zero and converts to any primitive integer type, assuming that the value is finite and fits in that type.

let value = 4.6_f64;
let rounded = unsafe { value.to_int_unchecked::<u16>() };
assert_eq!(rounded, 4);

let value = -128.9_f64;
let rounded = unsafe { value.to_int_unchecked::<i8>() };
assert_eq!(rounded, i8::MIN);
Run
Safety

The value must:

  • Not be NaN
  • Not be infinite
  • Be representable in the return type Int, after truncating off its fractional part

Raw transmutation to u64.

This is currently identical to transmute::<f64, u64>(self) on all platforms.

See from_bits for some discussion of the portability of this operation (there are almost no issues).

Note that this function is distinct from as casting, which attempts to preserve the numeric value, and not the bitwise value.

Examples
assert!((1f64).to_bits() != 1f64 as u64); // to_bits() is not casting!
assert_eq!((12.5f64).to_bits(), 0x4029000000000000);
Run

Raw transmutation from u64.

This is currently identical to transmute::<u64, f64>(v) on all platforms. It turns out this is incredibly portable, for two reasons:

  • Floats and Ints have the same endianness on all supported platforms.
  • IEEE-754 very precisely specifies the bit layout of floats.

However there is one caveat: prior to the 2008 version of IEEE-754, how to interpret the NaN signaling bit wasn’t actually specified. Most platforms (notably x86 and ARM) picked the interpretation that was ultimately standardized in 2008, but some didn’t (notably MIPS). As a result, all signaling NaNs on MIPS are quiet NaNs on x86, and vice-versa.

Rather than trying to preserve signaling-ness cross-platform, this implementation favors preserving the exact bits. This means that any payloads encoded in NaNs will be preserved even if the result of this method is sent over the network from an x86 machine to a MIPS one.

If the results of this method are only manipulated by the same architecture that produced them, then there is no portability concern.

If the input isn’t NaN, then there is no portability concern.

If you don’t care about signaling-ness (very likely), then there is no portability concern.

Note that this function is distinct from as casting, which attempts to preserve the numeric value, and not the bitwise value.

Examples
let v = f64::from_bits(0x4029000000000000);
assert_eq!(v, 12.5);
Run

Return the memory representation of this floating point number as a byte array in big-endian (network) byte order.

Examples
let bytes = 12.5f64.to_be_bytes();
assert_eq!(bytes, [0x40, 0x29, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00]);
Run

Return the memory representation of this floating point number as a byte array in little-endian byte order.

Examples
let bytes = 12.5f64.to_le_bytes();
assert_eq!(bytes, [0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x29, 0x40]);
Run

Return the memory representation of this floating point number as a byte array in native byte order.

As the target platform’s native endianness is used, portable code should use to_be_bytes or to_le_bytes, as appropriate, instead.

Examples
let bytes = 12.5f64.to_ne_bytes();
assert_eq!(
    bytes,
    if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
        [0x40, 0x29, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00]
    } else {
        [0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x29, 0x40]
    }
);
Run

Create a floating point value from its representation as a byte array in big endian.

Examples
let value = f64::from_be_bytes([0x40, 0x29, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00]);
assert_eq!(value, 12.5);
Run

Create a floating point value from its representation as a byte array in little endian.

Examples
let value = f64::from_le_bytes([0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x29, 0x40]);
assert_eq!(value, 12.5);
Run

Create a floating point value from its representation as a byte array in native endian.

As the target platform’s native endianness is used, portable code likely wants to use from_be_bytes or from_le_bytes, as appropriate instead.

Examples
let value = f64::from_ne_bytes(if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
    [0x40, 0x29, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00]
} else {
    [0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x29, 0x40]
});
assert_eq!(value, 12.5);
Run

Return the ordering between self and other.

Unlike the standard partial comparison between floating point numbers, this comparison always produces an ordering in accordance to the totalOrder predicate as defined in the IEEE 754 (2008 revision) floating point standard. The values are ordered in the following sequence:

  • negative quiet NaN
  • negative signaling NaN
  • negative infinity
  • negative numbers
  • negative subnormal numbers
  • negative zero
  • positive zero
  • positive subnormal numbers
  • positive numbers
  • positive infinity
  • positive signaling NaN
  • positive quiet NaN.

The ordering established by this function does not always agree with the PartialOrd and PartialEq implementations of f64. For example, they consider negative and positive zero equal, while total_cmp doesn’t.

The interpretation of the signaling NaN bit follows the definition in the IEEE 754 standard, which may not match the interpretation by some of the older, non-conformant (e.g. MIPS) hardware implementations.

Example
struct GoodBoy {
    name: String,
    weight: f64,
}

let mut bois = vec![
    GoodBoy { name: "Pucci".to_owned(), weight: 0.1 },
    GoodBoy { name: "Woofer".to_owned(), weight: 99.0 },
    GoodBoy { name: "Yapper".to_owned(), weight: 10.0 },
    GoodBoy { name: "Chonk".to_owned(), weight: f64::INFINITY },
    GoodBoy { name: "Abs. Unit".to_owned(), weight: f64::NAN },
    GoodBoy { name: "Floaty".to_owned(), weight: -5.0 },
];

bois.sort_by(|a, b| a.weight.total_cmp(&b.weight));
Run

Restrict a value to a certain interval unless it is NaN.

Returns max if self is greater than max, and min if self is less than min. Otherwise this returns self.

Note that this function returns NaN if the initial value was NaN as well.

Panics

Panics if min > max, min is NaN, or max is NaN.

Examples
assert!((-3.0f64).clamp(-2.0, 1.0) == -2.0);
assert!((0.0f64).clamp(-2.0, 1.0) == 0.0);
assert!((2.0f64).clamp(-2.0, 1.0) == 1.0);
assert!((f64::NAN).clamp(-2.0, 1.0).is_nan());
Run

Trait Implementations

The resulting type after applying the + operator.

Performs the + operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the + operator.

Performs the + operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the + operator.

Performs the + operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the + operator.

Performs the + operation. Read more

Performs the += operation. Read more

Performs the += operation. Read more

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Returns the default value of 0.0

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

The resulting type after applying the / operator.

Performs the / operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the / operator.

Performs the / operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the / operator.

Performs the / operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the / operator.

Performs the / operation. Read more

Performs the /= operation. Read more

Performs the /= operation. Read more

Converts f32 to f64 losslessly.

Converts i16 to f64 losslessly.

Converts i32 to f64 losslessly.

Converts i8 to f64 losslessly.

Converts u16 to f64 losslessly.

Converts u32 to f64 losslessly.

Converts u8 to f64 losslessly.

Converts a string in base 10 to a float. Accepts an optional decimal exponent.

This function accepts strings such as

  • ‘3.14’
  • ‘-3.14’
  • ‘2.5E10’, or equivalently, ‘2.5e10’
  • ‘2.5E-10’
  • ‘5.’
  • ‘.5’, or, equivalently, ‘0.5’
  • ‘inf’, ‘-inf’, ‘+infinity’, ‘NaN’

Note that alphabetical characters are not case-sensitive.

Leading and trailing whitespace represent an error.

Grammar

All strings that adhere to the following EBNF grammar when lowercased will result in an Ok being returned:

Float  ::= Sign? ( 'inf' | 'infinity' | 'nan' | Number )
Number ::= ( Digit+ |
             '.' Digit* |
             Digit+ '.' Digit* |
             Digit* '.' Digit+ ) Exp?
Exp    ::= 'e' Sign? Digit+
Sign   ::= [+-]
Digit  ::= [0-9]
Arguments
  • src - A string
Return value

Err(ParseFloatError) if the string did not represent a valid number. Otherwise, Ok(n) where n is the floating-point number represented by src.

The associated error which can be returned from parsing.

Formats the value using the given formatter.

The resulting type after applying the * operator.

Performs the * operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the * operator.

Performs the * operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the * operator.

Performs the * operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the * operator.

Performs the * operation. Read more

Performs the *= operation. Read more

Performs the *= operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the - operator.

Performs the unary - operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the - operator.

Performs the unary - operation. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

Method which takes an iterator and generates Self from the elements by multiplying the items. Read more

Method which takes an iterator and generates Self from the elements by multiplying the items. Read more

The resulting type after applying the % operator.

Performs the % operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the % operator.

Performs the % operation. Read more

The remainder from the division of two floats.

The remainder has the same sign as the dividend and is computed as: x - (x / y).trunc() * y.

Examples

let x: f32 = 50.50;
let y: f32 = 8.125;
let remainder = x - (x / y).trunc() * y;

// The answer to both operations is 1.75
assert_eq!(x % y, remainder);
Run

The resulting type after applying the % operator.

Performs the % operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the % operator.

Performs the % operation. Read more

Performs the %= operation. Read more

Performs the %= operation. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (portable_simd #86656)

The mask element type corresponding to this element type.

The resulting type after applying the - operator.

Performs the - operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the - operator.

Performs the - operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the - operator.

Performs the - operation. Read more

The resulting type after applying the - operator.

Performs the - operation. Read more

Performs the -= operation. Read more

Performs the -= operation. Read more

Method which takes an iterator and generates Self from the elements by “summing up” the items. Read more

Method which takes an iterator and generates Self from the elements by “summing up” the items. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter.