Struct alloc::string::String

1.0.0 · source · []
pub struct String { /* private fields */ }
Expand description

A UTF-8–encoded, growable string.

The String type is the most common string type that has ownership over the contents of the string. It has a close relationship with its borrowed counterpart, the primitive str.

Examples

You can create a String from a literal string with String::from:

let hello = String::from("Hello, world!");
Run

You can append a char to a String with the push method, and append a &str with the push_str method:

let mut hello = String::from("Hello, ");

hello.push('w');
hello.push_str("orld!");
Run

If you have a vector of UTF-8 bytes, you can create a String from it with the from_utf8 method:

// some bytes, in a vector
let sparkle_heart = vec![240, 159, 146, 150];

// We know these bytes are valid, so we'll use `unwrap()`.
let sparkle_heart = String::from_utf8(sparkle_heart).unwrap();

assert_eq!("💖", sparkle_heart);
Run

UTF-8

Strings are always valid UTF-8. If you need a non-UTF-8 string, consider OsString. It is similar, but without the UTF-8 constraint. Because UTF-8 is a variable width encoding, Strings are typically smaller than an array of the same chars:

use std::mem;

// `s` is ASCII which represents each `char` as one byte
let s = "hello";
assert_eq!(s.len(), 5);

// A `char` array with the same contents would be longer because
// every `char` is four bytes
let s = ['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o'];
let size: usize = s.into_iter().map(|c| mem::size_of_val(&c)).sum();
assert_eq!(size, 20);

// However, for non-ASCII strings, the difference will be smaller
// and sometimes they are the same
let s = "💖💖💖💖💖";
assert_eq!(s.len(), 20);

let s = ['💖', '💖', '💖', '💖', '💖'];
let size: usize = s.into_iter().map(|c| mem::size_of_val(&c)).sum();
assert_eq!(size, 20);
Run

This raises interesting questions as to how s[i] should work. What should i be here? Several options include byte indices and char indices but, because of UTF-8 encoding, only byte indices would provide constant time indexing. Getting the ith char, for example, is available using chars:

let s = "hello";
let third_character = s.chars().nth(2);
assert_eq!(third_character, Some('l'));

let s = "💖💖💖💖💖";
let third_character = s.chars().nth(2);
assert_eq!(third_character, Some('💖'));
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Next, what should s[i] return? Because indexing returns a reference to underlying data it could be &u8, &[u8], or something else similar. Since we’re only providing one index, &u8 makes the most sense but that might not be what the user expects and can be explicitly achieved with as_bytes():

// The first byte is 104 - the byte value of `'h'`
let s = "hello";
assert_eq!(s.as_bytes()[0], 104);
// or
assert_eq!(s.as_bytes()[0], b'h');

// The first byte is 240 which isn't obviously useful
let s = "💖💖💖💖💖";
assert_eq!(s.as_bytes()[0], 240);
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Due to these ambiguities/restrictions, indexing with a usize is simply forbidden:

let s = "hello";

// The following will not compile!
println!("The first letter of s is {}", s[0]);
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It is more clear, however, how &s[i..j] should work (that is, indexing with a range). It should accept byte indices (to be constant-time) and return a &str which is UTF-8 encoded. This is also called “string slicing”. Note this will panic if the byte indices provided are not character boundaries - see is_char_boundary for more details. See the implementations for SliceIndex<str> for more details on string slicing. For a non-panicking version of string slicing, see get.

The bytes and chars methods return iterators over the bytes and codepoints of the string, respectively. To iterate over codepoints along with byte indices, use char_indices.

Deref

String implements Deref<Target = str>, and so inherits all of str’s methods. In addition, this means that you can pass a String to a function which takes a &str by using an ampersand (&):

fn takes_str(s: &str) { }

let s = String::from("Hello");

takes_str(&s);
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This will create a &str from the String and pass it in. This conversion is very inexpensive, and so generally, functions will accept &strs as arguments unless they need a String for some specific reason.

In certain cases Rust doesn’t have enough information to make this conversion, known as Deref coercion. In the following example a string slice &'a str implements the trait TraitExample, and the function example_func takes anything that implements the trait. In this case Rust would need to make two implicit conversions, which Rust doesn’t have the means to do. For that reason, the following example will not compile.

trait TraitExample {}

impl<'a> TraitExample for &'a str {}

fn example_func<A: TraitExample>(example_arg: A) {}

let example_string = String::from("example_string");
example_func(&example_string);
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There are two options that would work instead. The first would be to change the line example_func(&example_string); to example_func(example_string.as_str());, using the method as_str() to explicitly extract the string slice containing the string. The second way changes example_func(&example_string); to example_func(&*example_string);. In this case we are dereferencing a String to a str, then referencing the str back to &str. The second way is more idiomatic, however both work to do the conversion explicitly rather than relying on the implicit conversion.

Representation

A String is made up of three components: a pointer to some bytes, a length, and a capacity. The pointer points to an internal buffer String uses to store its data. The length is the number of bytes currently stored in the buffer, and the capacity is the size of the buffer in bytes. As such, the length will always be less than or equal to the capacity.

This buffer is always stored on the heap.

You can look at these with the as_ptr, len, and capacity methods:

use std::mem;

let story = String::from("Once upon a time...");

// Prevent automatically dropping the String's data
let mut story = mem::ManuallyDrop::new(story);

let ptr = story.as_mut_ptr();
let len = story.len();
let capacity = story.capacity();

// story has nineteen bytes
assert_eq!(19, len);

// We can re-build a String out of ptr, len, and capacity. This is all
// unsafe because we are responsible for making sure the components are
// valid:
let s = unsafe { String::from_raw_parts(ptr, len, capacity) } ;

assert_eq!(String::from("Once upon a time..."), s);
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If a String has enough capacity, adding elements to it will not re-allocate. For example, consider this program:

let mut s = String::new();

println!("{}", s.capacity());

for _ in 0..5 {
    s.push_str("hello");
    println!("{}", s.capacity());
}
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This will output the following:

0
5
10
20
20
40

At first, we have no memory allocated at all, but as we append to the string, it increases its capacity appropriately. If we instead use the with_capacity method to allocate the correct capacity initially:

let mut s = String::with_capacity(25);

println!("{}", s.capacity());

for _ in 0..5 {
    s.push_str("hello");
    println!("{}", s.capacity());
}
Run

We end up with a different output:

25
25
25
25
25
25

Here, there’s no need to allocate more memory inside the loop.

Implementations

Creates a new empty String.

Given that the String is empty, this will not allocate any initial buffer. While that means that this initial operation is very inexpensive, it may cause excessive allocation later when you add data. If you have an idea of how much data the String will hold, consider the with_capacity method to prevent excessive re-allocation.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::new();
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Creates a new empty String with a particular capacity.

Strings have an internal buffer to hold their data. The capacity is the length of that buffer, and can be queried with the capacity method. This method creates an empty String, but one with an initial buffer that can hold capacity bytes. This is useful when you may be appending a bunch of data to the String, reducing the number of reallocations it needs to do.

If the given capacity is 0, no allocation will occur, and this method is identical to the new method.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::with_capacity(10);

// The String contains no chars, even though it has capacity for more
assert_eq!(s.len(), 0);

// These are all done without reallocating...
let cap = s.capacity();
for _ in 0..10 {
    s.push('a');
}

assert_eq!(s.capacity(), cap);

// ...but this may make the string reallocate
s.push('a');
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Converts a vector of bytes to a String.

A string (String) is made of bytes (u8), and a vector of bytes (Vec<u8>) is made of bytes, so this function converts between the two. Not all byte slices are valid Strings, however: String requires that it is valid UTF-8. from_utf8() checks to ensure that the bytes are valid UTF-8, and then does the conversion.

If you are sure that the byte slice is valid UTF-8, and you don’t want to incur the overhead of the validity check, there is an unsafe version of this function, from_utf8_unchecked, which has the same behavior but skips the check.

This method will take care to not copy the vector, for efficiency’s sake.

If you need a &str instead of a String, consider str::from_utf8.

The inverse of this method is into_bytes.

Errors

Returns Err if the slice is not UTF-8 with a description as to why the provided bytes are not UTF-8. The vector you moved in is also included.

Examples

Basic usage:

// some bytes, in a vector
let sparkle_heart = vec![240, 159, 146, 150];

// We know these bytes are valid, so we'll use `unwrap()`.
let sparkle_heart = String::from_utf8(sparkle_heart).unwrap();

assert_eq!("💖", sparkle_heart);
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Incorrect bytes:

// some invalid bytes, in a vector
let sparkle_heart = vec![0, 159, 146, 150];

assert!(String::from_utf8(sparkle_heart).is_err());
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See the docs for FromUtf8Error for more details on what you can do with this error.

Converts a slice of bytes to a string, including invalid characters.

Strings are made of bytes (u8), and a slice of bytes (&[u8]) is made of bytes, so this function converts between the two. Not all byte slices are valid strings, however: strings are required to be valid UTF-8. During this conversion, from_utf8_lossy() will replace any invalid UTF-8 sequences with U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, which looks like this: �

If you are sure that the byte slice is valid UTF-8, and you don’t want to incur the overhead of the conversion, there is an unsafe version of this function, from_utf8_unchecked, which has the same behavior but skips the checks.

This function returns a Cow<'a, str>. If our byte slice is invalid UTF-8, then we need to insert the replacement characters, which will change the size of the string, and hence, require a String. But if it’s already valid UTF-8, we don’t need a new allocation. This return type allows us to handle both cases.

Examples

Basic usage:

// some bytes, in a vector
let sparkle_heart = vec![240, 159, 146, 150];

let sparkle_heart = String::from_utf8_lossy(&sparkle_heart);

assert_eq!("💖", sparkle_heart);
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Incorrect bytes:

// some invalid bytes
let input = b"Hello \xF0\x90\x80World";
let output = String::from_utf8_lossy(input);

assert_eq!("Hello �World", output);
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Decode a UTF-16–encoded vector v into a String, returning Err if v contains any invalid data.

Examples

Basic usage:

// 𝄞music
let v = &[0xD834, 0xDD1E, 0x006d, 0x0075,
          0x0073, 0x0069, 0x0063];
assert_eq!(String::from("𝄞music"),
           String::from_utf16(v).unwrap());

// 𝄞mu<invalid>ic
let v = &[0xD834, 0xDD1E, 0x006d, 0x0075,
          0xD800, 0x0069, 0x0063];
assert!(String::from_utf16(v).is_err());
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Decode a UTF-16–encoded slice v into a String, replacing invalid data with the replacement character (U+FFFD).

Unlike from_utf8_lossy which returns a Cow<'a, str>, from_utf16_lossy returns a String since the UTF-16 to UTF-8 conversion requires a memory allocation.

Examples

Basic usage:

// 𝄞mus<invalid>ic<invalid>
let v = &[0xD834, 0xDD1E, 0x006d, 0x0075,
          0x0073, 0xDD1E, 0x0069, 0x0063,
          0xD834];

assert_eq!(String::from("𝄞mus\u{FFFD}ic\u{FFFD}"),
           String::from_utf16_lossy(v));
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🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_into_raw_parts #65816)

Decomposes a String into its raw components.

Returns the raw pointer to the underlying data, the length of the string (in bytes), and the allocated capacity of the data (in bytes). These are the same arguments in the same order as the arguments to from_raw_parts.

After calling this function, the caller is responsible for the memory previously managed by the String. The only way to do this is to convert the raw pointer, length, and capacity back into a String with the from_raw_parts function, allowing the destructor to perform the cleanup.

Examples
#![feature(vec_into_raw_parts)]
let s = String::from("hello");

let (ptr, len, cap) = s.into_raw_parts();

let rebuilt = unsafe { String::from_raw_parts(ptr, len, cap) };
assert_eq!(rebuilt, "hello");
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Creates a new String from a length, capacity, and pointer.

Safety

This is highly unsafe, due to the number of invariants that aren’t checked:

  • The memory at buf needs to have been previously allocated by the same allocator the standard library uses, with a required alignment of exactly 1.
  • length needs to be less than or equal to capacity.
  • capacity needs to be the correct value.
  • The first length bytes at buf need to be valid UTF-8.

Violating these may cause problems like corrupting the allocator’s internal data structures.

The ownership of buf is effectively transferred to the String which may then deallocate, reallocate or change the contents of memory pointed to by the pointer at will. Ensure that nothing else uses the pointer after calling this function.

Examples

Basic usage:

use std::mem;

unsafe {
    let s = String::from("hello");

    // Prevent automatically dropping the String's data
    let mut s = mem::ManuallyDrop::new(s);

    let ptr = s.as_mut_ptr();
    let len = s.len();
    let capacity = s.capacity();

    let s = String::from_raw_parts(ptr, len, capacity);

    assert_eq!(String::from("hello"), s);
}
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Converts a vector of bytes to a String without checking that the string contains valid UTF-8.

See the safe version, from_utf8, for more details.

Safety

This function is unsafe because it does not check that the bytes passed to it are valid UTF-8. If this constraint is violated, it may cause memory unsafety issues with future users of the String, as the rest of the standard library assumes that Strings are valid UTF-8.

Examples

Basic usage:

// some bytes, in a vector
let sparkle_heart = vec![240, 159, 146, 150];

let sparkle_heart = unsafe {
    String::from_utf8_unchecked(sparkle_heart)
};

assert_eq!("💖", sparkle_heart);
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Converts a String into a byte vector.

This consumes the String, so we do not need to copy its contents.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::from("hello");
let bytes = s.into_bytes();

assert_eq!(&[104, 101, 108, 108, 111][..], &bytes[..]);
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Extracts a string slice containing the entire String.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::from("foo");

assert_eq!("foo", s.as_str());
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Converts a String into a mutable string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("foobar");
let s_mut_str = s.as_mut_str();

s_mut_str.make_ascii_uppercase();

assert_eq!("FOOBAR", s_mut_str);
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Appends a given string slice onto the end of this String.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("foo");

s.push_str("bar");

assert_eq!("foobar", s);
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🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (string_extend_from_within)

Copies elements from src range to the end of the string.

Panics

Panics if the starting point or end point do not lie on a char boundary, or if they’re out of bounds.

Examples
#![feature(string_extend_from_within)]
let mut string = String::from("abcde");

string.extend_from_within(2..);
assert_eq!(string, "abcdecde");

string.extend_from_within(..2);
assert_eq!(string, "abcdecdeab");

string.extend_from_within(4..8);
assert_eq!(string, "abcdecdeabecde");
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Returns this String’s capacity, in bytes.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::with_capacity(10);

assert!(s.capacity() >= 10);
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Ensures that this String’s capacity is at least additional bytes larger than its length.

The capacity may be increased by more than additional bytes if it chooses, to prevent frequent reallocations.

If you do not want this “at least” behavior, see the reserve_exact method.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity overflows usize.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::new();

s.reserve(10);

assert!(s.capacity() >= 10);
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This might not actually increase the capacity:

let mut s = String::with_capacity(10);
s.push('a');
s.push('b');

// s now has a length of 2 and a capacity of 10
assert_eq!(2, s.len());
assert_eq!(10, s.capacity());

// Since we already have an extra 8 capacity, calling this...
s.reserve(8);

// ... doesn't actually increase.
assert_eq!(10, s.capacity());
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Ensures that this String’s capacity is additional bytes larger than its length.

Consider using the reserve method unless you absolutely know better than the allocator.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity overflows usize.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::new();

s.reserve_exact(10);

assert!(s.capacity() >= 10);
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This might not actually increase the capacity:

let mut s = String::with_capacity(10);
s.push('a');
s.push('b');

// s now has a length of 2 and a capacity of 10
assert_eq!(2, s.len());
assert_eq!(10, s.capacity());

// Since we already have an extra 8 capacity, calling this...
s.reserve_exact(8);

// ... doesn't actually increase.
assert_eq!(10, s.capacity());
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Tries to reserve capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given String. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations. After calling reserve, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if capacity is already sufficient.

Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

Examples
use std::collections::TryReserveError;

fn process_data(data: &str) -> Result<String, TryReserveError> {
    let mut output = String::new();

    // Pre-reserve the memory, exiting if we can't
    output.try_reserve(data.len())?;

    // Now we know this can't OOM in the middle of our complex work
    output.push_str(data);

    Ok(output)
}
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Tries to reserve the minimum capacity for exactly additional more elements to be inserted in the given String. After calling try_reserve_exact, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if the capacity is already sufficient.

Note that the allocator may give the collection more space than it requests. Therefore, capacity can not be relied upon to be precisely minimal. Prefer try_reserve if future insertions are expected.

Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

Examples
use std::collections::TryReserveError;

fn process_data(data: &str) -> Result<String, TryReserveError> {
    let mut output = String::new();

    // Pre-reserve the memory, exiting if we can't
    output.try_reserve_exact(data.len())?;

    // Now we know this can't OOM in the middle of our complex work
    output.push_str(data);

    Ok(output)
}
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Shrinks the capacity of this String to match its length.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("foo");

s.reserve(100);
assert!(s.capacity() >= 100);

s.shrink_to_fit();
assert_eq!(3, s.capacity());
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Shrinks the capacity of this String with a lower bound.

The capacity will remain at least as large as both the length and the supplied value.

If the current capacity is less than the lower limit, this is a no-op.

Examples
let mut s = String::from("foo");

s.reserve(100);
assert!(s.capacity() >= 100);

s.shrink_to(10);
assert!(s.capacity() >= 10);
s.shrink_to(0);
assert!(s.capacity() >= 3);
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Appends the given char to the end of this String.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("abc");

s.push('1');
s.push('2');
s.push('3');

assert_eq!("abc123", s);
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Returns a byte slice of this String’s contents.

The inverse of this method is from_utf8.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::from("hello");

assert_eq!(&[104, 101, 108, 108, 111], s.as_bytes());
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Shortens this String to the specified length.

If new_len is greater than the string’s current length, this has no effect.

Note that this method has no effect on the allocated capacity of the string

Panics

Panics if new_len does not lie on a char boundary.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("hello");

s.truncate(2);

assert_eq!("he", s);
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Removes the last character from the string buffer and returns it.

Returns None if this String is empty.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("foo");

assert_eq!(s.pop(), Some('o'));
assert_eq!(s.pop(), Some('o'));
assert_eq!(s.pop(), Some('f'));

assert_eq!(s.pop(), None);
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Removes a char from this String at a byte position and returns it.

This is an O(n) operation, as it requires copying every element in the buffer.

Panics

Panics if idx is larger than or equal to the String’s length, or if it does not lie on a char boundary.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("foo");

assert_eq!(s.remove(0), 'f');
assert_eq!(s.remove(1), 'o');
assert_eq!(s.remove(0), 'o');
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🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (string_remove_matches #72826)

Remove all matches of pattern pat in the String.

Examples
#![feature(string_remove_matches)]
let mut s = String::from("Trees are not green, the sky is not blue.");
s.remove_matches("not ");
assert_eq!("Trees are green, the sky is blue.", s);
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Matches will be detected and removed iteratively, so in cases where patterns overlap, only the first pattern will be removed:

#![feature(string_remove_matches)]
let mut s = String::from("banana");
s.remove_matches("ana");
assert_eq!("bna", s);
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Retains only the characters specified by the predicate.

In other words, remove all characters c such that f(c) returns false. This method operates in place, visiting each character exactly once in the original order, and preserves the order of the retained characters.

Examples
let mut s = String::from("f_o_ob_ar");

s.retain(|c| c != '_');

assert_eq!(s, "foobar");
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Because the elements are visited exactly once in the original order, external state may be used to decide which elements to keep.

let mut s = String::from("abcde");
let keep = [false, true, true, false, true];
let mut iter = keep.iter();
s.retain(|_| *iter.next().unwrap());
assert_eq!(s, "bce");
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Inserts a character into this String at a byte position.

This is an O(n) operation as it requires copying every element in the buffer.

Panics

Panics if idx is larger than the String’s length, or if it does not lie on a char boundary.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::with_capacity(3);

s.insert(0, 'f');
s.insert(1, 'o');
s.insert(2, 'o');

assert_eq!("foo", s);
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Inserts a string slice into this String at a byte position.

This is an O(n) operation as it requires copying every element in the buffer.

Panics

Panics if idx is larger than the String’s length, or if it does not lie on a char boundary.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("bar");

s.insert_str(0, "foo");

assert_eq!("foobar", s);
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Returns a mutable reference to the contents of this String.

Safety

This function is unsafe because the returned &mut Vec allows writing bytes which are not valid UTF-8. If this constraint is violated, using the original String after dropping the &mut Vec may violate memory safety, as the rest of the standard library assumes that Strings are valid UTF-8.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("hello");

unsafe {
    let vec = s.as_mut_vec();
    assert_eq!(&[104, 101, 108, 108, 111][..], &vec[..]);

    vec.reverse();
}
assert_eq!(s, "olleh");
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Returns the length of this String, in bytes, not chars or graphemes. In other words, it might not be what a human considers the length of the string.

Examples

Basic usage:

let a = String::from("foo");
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);

let fancy_f = String::from("ƒoo");
assert_eq!(fancy_f.len(), 4);
assert_eq!(fancy_f.chars().count(), 3);
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Returns true if this String has a length of zero, and false otherwise.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut v = String::new();
assert!(v.is_empty());

v.push('a');
assert!(!v.is_empty());
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Splits the string into two at the given byte index.

Returns a newly allocated String. self contains bytes [0, at), and the returned String contains bytes [at, len). at must be on the boundary of a UTF-8 code point.

Note that the capacity of self does not change.

Panics

Panics if at is not on a UTF-8 code point boundary, or if it is beyond the last code point of the string.

Examples
let mut hello = String::from("Hello, World!");
let world = hello.split_off(7);
assert_eq!(hello, "Hello, ");
assert_eq!(world, "World!");
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Truncates this String, removing all contents.

While this means the String will have a length of zero, it does not touch its capacity.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("foo");

s.clear();

assert!(s.is_empty());
assert_eq!(0, s.len());
assert_eq!(3, s.capacity());
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Removes the specified range from the string in bulk, returning all removed characters as an iterator.

The returned iterator keeps a mutable borrow on the string to optimize its implementation.

Panics

Panics if the starting point or end point do not lie on a char boundary, or if they’re out of bounds.

Leaking

If the returned iterator goes out of scope without being dropped (due to core::mem::forget, for example), the string may still contain a copy of any drained characters, or may have lost characters arbitrarily, including characters outside the range.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("α is alpha, β is beta");
let beta_offset = s.find('β').unwrap_or(s.len());

// Remove the range up until the β from the string
let t: String = s.drain(..beta_offset).collect();
assert_eq!(t, "α is alpha, ");
assert_eq!(s, "β is beta");

// A full range clears the string, like `clear()` does
s.drain(..);
assert_eq!(s, "");
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Removes the specified range in the string, and replaces it with the given string. The given string doesn’t need to be the same length as the range.

Panics

Panics if the starting point or end point do not lie on a char boundary, or if they’re out of bounds.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("α is alpha, β is beta");
let beta_offset = s.find('β').unwrap_or(s.len());

// Replace the range up until the β from the string
s.replace_range(..beta_offset, "Α is capital alpha; ");
assert_eq!(s, "Α is capital alpha; β is beta");
Run

Converts this String into a Box<str>.

This will drop any excess capacity.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::from("hello");

let b = s.into_boxed_str();
Run

Methods from Deref<Target = str>

Replaces all matches of a pattern with another string.

replace creates a new String, and copies the data from this string slice into it. While doing so, it attempts to find matches of a pattern. If it finds any, it replaces them with the replacement string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "this is old";

assert_eq!("this is new", s.replace("old", "new"));
Run

When the pattern doesn’t match:

let s = "this is old";
assert_eq!(s, s.replace("cookie monster", "little lamb"));
Run

Replaces first N matches of a pattern with another string.

replacen creates a new String, and copies the data from this string slice into it. While doing so, it attempts to find matches of a pattern. If it finds any, it replaces them with the replacement string slice at most count times.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "foo foo 123 foo";
assert_eq!("new new 123 foo", s.replacen("foo", "new", 2));
assert_eq!("faa fao 123 foo", s.replacen('o', "a", 3));
assert_eq!("foo foo new23 foo", s.replacen(char::is_numeric, "new", 1));
Run

When the pattern doesn’t match:

let s = "this is old";
assert_eq!(s, s.replacen("cookie monster", "little lamb", 10));
Run

Returns the lowercase equivalent of this string slice, as a new String.

‘Lowercase’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property Lowercase.

Since some characters can expand into multiple characters when changing the case, this function returns a String instead of modifying the parameter in-place.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "HELLO";

assert_eq!("hello", s.to_lowercase());
Run

A tricky example, with sigma:

let sigma = "Σ";

assert_eq!("σ", sigma.to_lowercase());

// but at the end of a word, it's ς, not σ:
let odysseus = "ὈΔΥΣΣΕΎΣ";

assert_eq!("ὀδυσσεύς", odysseus.to_lowercase());
Run

Languages without case are not changed:

let new_year = "农历新年";

assert_eq!(new_year, new_year.to_lowercase());
Run

Returns the uppercase equivalent of this string slice, as a new String.

‘Uppercase’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property Uppercase.

Since some characters can expand into multiple characters when changing the case, this function returns a String instead of modifying the parameter in-place.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "hello";

assert_eq!("HELLO", s.to_uppercase());
Run

Scripts without case are not changed:

let new_year = "农历新年";

assert_eq!(new_year, new_year.to_uppercase());
Run

One character can become multiple:

let s = "tschüß";

assert_eq!("TSCHÜSS", s.to_uppercase());
Run

Creates a new String by repeating a string n times.

Panics

This function will panic if the capacity would overflow.

Examples

Basic usage:

assert_eq!("abc".repeat(4), String::from("abcabcabcabc"));
Run

A panic upon overflow:

// this will panic at runtime
let huge = "0123456789abcdef".repeat(usize::MAX);
Run

Returns a copy of this string where each character is mapped to its ASCII upper case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To uppercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_uppercase.

To uppercase ASCII characters in addition to non-ASCII characters, use to_uppercase.

Examples
let s = "Grüße, Jürgen ❤";

assert_eq!("GRüßE, JüRGEN ❤", s.to_ascii_uppercase());
Run

Returns a copy of this string where each character is mapped to its ASCII lower case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To lowercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_lowercase.

To lowercase ASCII characters in addition to non-ASCII characters, use to_lowercase.

Examples
let s = "Grüße, Jürgen ❤";

assert_eq!("grüße, jürgen ❤", s.to_ascii_lowercase());
Run

Trait Implementations

Implements the + operator for concatenating two strings.

This consumes the String on the left-hand side and re-uses its buffer (growing it if necessary). This is done to avoid allocating a new String and copying the entire contents on every operation, which would lead to O(n^2) running time when building an n-byte string by repeated concatenation.

The string on the right-hand side is only borrowed; its contents are copied into the returned String.

Examples

Concatenating two Strings takes the first by value and borrows the second:

let a = String::from("hello");
let b = String::from(" world");
let c = a + &b;
// `a` is moved and can no longer be used here.
Run

If you want to keep using the first String, you can clone it and append to the clone instead:

let a = String::from("hello");
let b = String::from(" world");
let c = a.clone() + &b;
// `a` is still valid here.
Run

Concatenating &str slices can be done by converting the first to a String:

let a = "hello";
let b = " world";
let c = a.to_string() + b;
Run

The resulting type after applying the + operator.

Performs the + operation. Read more

Implements the += operator for appending to a String.

This has the same behavior as the push_str method.

Performs the += operation. Read more

Converts this type into a mutable reference of the (usually inferred) input type.

Converts this type into a shared reference of the (usually inferred) input type.

Converts this type into a shared reference of the (usually inferred) input type.

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Creates an empty String.

The resulting type after dereferencing.

Dereferences the value.

Mutably dereferences the value.

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Converts a &String into a String.

This clones s and returns the clone.

Converts a &mut str into a String.

The result is allocated on the heap.

Converts a &str into a String.

The result is allocated on the heap.

Converts a String reference into a Borrowed variant. No heap allocation is performed, and the string is not copied.

Example
let s = "eggplant".to_string();
assert_eq!(Cow::from(&s), Cow::Borrowed("eggplant"));
Run

Converts the given boxed str slice to a String. It is notable that the str slice is owned.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s1: String = String::from("hello world");
let s2: Box<str> = s1.into_boxed_str();
let s3: String = String::from(s2);

assert_eq!("hello world", s3)
Run

Converts a clone-on-write string to an owned instance of String.

This extracts the owned string, clones the string if it is not already owned.

Example
// If the string is not owned...
let cow: Cow<str> = Cow::Borrowed("eggplant");
// It will allocate on the heap and copy the string.
let owned: String = String::from(cow);
assert_eq!(&owned[..], "eggplant");
Run

Allocate a reference-counted string slice and copy v into it.

Example
let original: String = "statue".to_owned();
let shared: Rc<str> = Rc::from(original);
assert_eq!("statue", &shared[..]);
Run

Converts the given String to a boxed str slice that is owned.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s1: String = String::from("hello world");
let s2: Box<str> = Box::from(s1);
let s3: String = String::from(s2);

assert_eq!("hello world", s3)
Run

Converts a String into an Owned variant. No heap allocation is performed, and the string is not copied.

Example
let s = "eggplant".to_string();
let s2 = "eggplant".to_string();
assert_eq!(Cow::from(s), Cow::<'static, str>::Owned(s2));
Run

Converts the given String to a vector Vec that holds values of type u8.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s1 = String::from("hello world");
let v1 = Vec::from(s1);

for b in v1 {
    println!("{b}");
}
Run

Allocate a reference-counted str and copy v into it.

Example
let unique: String = "eggplant".to_owned();
let shared: Arc<str> = Arc::from(unique);
assert_eq!("eggplant", &shared[..]);
Run

Allocates an owned String from a single character.

Example
let c: char = 'a';
let s: String = String::from(c);
assert_eq!("a", &s[..]);
Run

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

The associated error which can be returned from parsing.

Parses a string s to return a value of this type. Read more

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

The returned type after indexing.

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

The returned type after indexing.

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

The returned type after indexing.

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

The returned type after indexing.

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

The returned type after indexing.

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

The returned type after indexing.

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

A convenience impl that delegates to the impl for &str.

Examples

assert_eq!(String::from("Hello world").find("world"), Some(6));
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pattern #27721)

Associated searcher for this pattern

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pattern #27721)

Constructs the associated searcher from self and the haystack to search in. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pattern #27721)

Checks whether the pattern matches anywhere in the haystack

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pattern #27721)

Checks whether the pattern matches at the front of the haystack

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pattern #27721)

Removes the pattern from the front of haystack, if it matches.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pattern #27721)

Checks whether the pattern matches at the back of the haystack

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pattern #27721)

Removes the pattern from the back of haystack, if it matches.

Converts the given value to a String. Read more

Writes a string slice into this writer, returning whether the write succeeded. Read more

Writes a char into this writer, returning whether the write succeeded. Read more

Glue for usage of the write! macro with implementors of this trait. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns the argument unchanged.

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (toowned_clone_into #41263)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more

Converts the given value to a String. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.